Pengaruh Relative Advantage, Complexity, Compatibilty, Subjective Norm, Dan Perceived Behavioral Control Terhadap Niat Berwirausaha Online Pada Lulusan Sekolah Bisnis Di Bandung (Studi Kasus Pada Sekolah Bisnis Manajemen Institut Teknologi Bandung Dan Fakultas Ekonomi Bisnis Universitas Telkom)

Ilham Gumilang, Deden Syarif Hidayatullah

Abstract

Abstrak Pentingnya melakukan penelitian tentang faktor penentu niat berwirausaha online, dilatarbelakangi oleh peran berwirausaha yang berkontribusi 7,05% pada GDP nasional. Perkembangan teknologi informasi dan internet yang terus berkembang juga melatarbelakangi niat seseorang dalam berwirausaha, khususnya lulusan sekolah bisnis lewat tersedianya e-commerce. Meningkatnya jumlah angkatan kerja pada Februari 2017 sebesar 131,55 juta orang dibanding Agustus 2016 dan presentase wirausaha hanya sebesar 3,1%. Tetapi jumlah lulusan universitas yang memilih berwirausaha hanya sebesar 22,6%. Perkembangan teknologi informasi dan internet yang terus berkembang juga melatarbelakangi niat seseorang dalam berwirausaha, khususnya lulusan sekolah bisnis lewat tersedianya e-commerce.
Penelitian ini mengevaluasi pengaruh variable-variabel dari konsep innovation diffusion theory (IDT) dan theory of planned behavior (TPB), yaitu relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, subjective norm, dan perceived behavioral control terhadap niat berwirausaha online lulusan sekolah bisnis SBM ITB dan FEB Universitas Telkom.
Data dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner yang disebar melalui email dan sosial media, seperti line, whatsapp, instagram kepada lulusan sekolah bisnis SBM ITB dan FEB Universitas Telkom. Dari kuesioner yang disebar diperoleh 400 kuesioner yang valid. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis regresi linear berganda yang diolah dengan SPSS.
Berdasarkan evaluasi pengaruh variabel-variabel terhadap niat berwirausaha online diperoleh hasil bahwa variabel compatibility, subjective norm, dan perceived behavioral control terbukti memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap niat berwirausaha online. Sedangkan variabel relative advantage dan complexity tidak memiliki pengaruh terhadap niat berwirausaha online. Dengan variabel compatibility merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap niat berwirausaha online.
Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, bisnis diharapkan dapat mempertahankan dan menerima pandangan sosial lain yang dapat mendorong niat berwirausaha online, lalu diharapkan lulusan sekolah bisnis tidak menilai bahwa pendidikan hanya terhenti disitu. Dan tidak menilai bahwa pendidikan bukanlah suatu yang penting, masih banyak ilmu yang bisa didapat walaupun bukan dari proses belajar mengajar dikampus, dan juga diperlukan peningkatan kebiasaan akan berwirausaha online agar dapat meningkatkan kinerja usaha mereka sehingga berdampak terhadap perkembangan usaha yang kemudian menghasilkan keuntungan yang lebih besar. Kebiasaan dalam berwirausaha online sangat mungkin didapatkan melalui dorongan sosial keluarga atau orang terdekat yang mereka miliki dan contoh kesuksesan seseorang dalam berwirausaha online.

Kata Kunci: Innovation Difussion Theory (IDT), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Niat Berwirauhasa Online, Kewirausahaan.

Abstract
ISSN : 2355-9357 e-Proceeding of Management : Vol.5, No.1 Maret 2018 | Page 360
The importance of conducting research on the determinants of online entrepreneurship intentions, is motivated by the role of entrepreneurs who contribute 7.05% to national GDP. The development of information technology and the internet that continues to grow also lies behind the intention of someone in entrepreneurship, especially business school graduates through the availability of e-commerce. the increase in the labor force in February 2017 was 131.55 million people compared to August 2016 and the percentage of entrepreneurs was only 3.1%. But the number of university graduates who choose entrepreneurship is only 22.6%. The development of information technology and the internet that continues to grow also lies behind the intention of someone in entrepreneurship, especially business school graduates through the availability of e-commerce. This study evaluated the effect of variables from the concept of innovation diffusion theory (IDT) and theory of planned behavior (TPB), namely relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control toward online entrepreneurship intention graduated from SBM ITB and FEB Telkom University. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed via email and social media, such as line, whatsapp, instagram to SBM ITB business school graduates and FEB Telkom University. From the questionnaires, there were 400 valid questionnaires. Data analysis technique using multiple linear regression analysis processed with SPSS. Based on the evaluation of the effect of the variables on online entrepreneurship intention, it is found that the variable of compatibility, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control have positive positive effect on Online entrepreneurship intention. While the relative advantage and complexity variables do not have influence on online entrepreneurship intention. With the variable compatibility is the most influential variable to online entrepreneurship intention. Based on the results of the research, business is expected to maintain and accept other social views that can encourage online entrepreneurial intentions, then it is expected that business school graduates do not judge that education only stops there. And do not judge that education is not an important thing, there is still a lot of knowledge that can be obtained even though not from teaching and learning process campus, and also it is necessary to increase the habits of online entrepreneurship in order to improve the performance of their business so that the impact on business development which then generate greater profits. Habits in online entrepreneurship is very possible obtained through the social drive of the family or people closest to them and the example of one's success in online entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Innovation Difussion Theory (IDT), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Online Entrepreneurship Intention, Entrepreneurship.

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