Courtyard Placement for Maintaining Air Movement of Natural Ventilation inside a Transformed House


  • Silfia Mona Aryani Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Soepono Sasongko Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • If. Bambang Sulistyono Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Nur Hidayati Universitas Sebelas Maret


A courtyard has effectively induced fresh air into the interior of the house and hence is recommended for inclusion in an additional-room program in a house transformation initiative. However, because of the limited space and the vast choice of room programs that need to be considered in the transformation, it is necessary to formulate the right position of the courtyard. This article sets out the results of research that observed the most effective position of the courtyard. The research was conducted through Ansys 14.5 simulation. The 81 m2 house was simulated as an open lay-out design without any interior partitions. The open layout based simulation is aimed to make the visualization of wind circulation clearly seen. The 9 m2 courtyard is tested in 9 different positions. Based on the simulation, it can be concluded that there are 5 courtyard positions that give positive results for wind velocity, thereby promoting air circulation throughout the entire house area.


Aryani, S.M., Wahyuningsih, I.E.S. and Mulyadi, 2014,

Laporan Akhir Penelitian: Studi Perubahan Spasial Rumah

Perumnas; Eksplorasi Desain Inti Rumah Tumbuh, Sebelas

Maret University.

Sasongko, S., 2015, Laporan Akhir Pengabdian pada

Masyarakat: Pendampingan Pengembangan Desain Rumah

Inti Tumbuh; Studi Kasus Perumnas Wonorejo Karanganyar,

Sebelas Maret University.

Aryani, S.M., Yusuf, A., Wahyuningsih, I.E.S. and Sasongko,

S., 2016, The Study of the Courtyard Effectiveness as Solution

for the House Design Transformation Problem on Natural

Ventilation, Proceeding of the 4th International Conference

on Sustainable Built Environment, Indonesia Islam


Dili A. S, Naseer M.A., Zacharia V.T., 2010, The influence of

internal courtyard of Kerala traditional residential buildings

in providing a comfortable indoor environment, International

Journal of the Earth Sciences and Engineering Vol. 3 No. 1

pp. 1-5.

Philokyprou, M. and Michael, A., 2012, Evaluation of the

environmental features of vernacular architecture,a case

study in Cyprus, Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation.

Asfour, O.S., 2008, A Study of Thermal Performance of

Traditional Courtyard Buildings Using Computer Simulation,

AHRCP pp 389-399.

Sadafi, N., Saleh, E., Haw, L.C. and Jaafar, Z., 2011, Evaluating

thermal effects of internal courtyard in a tropical terrace

house by computational simulation.

Zakaria, M.A. and Ismail, L.H., nd, Natural Ventilation Approached

on Circular Courtyard Building in Hot Humid


Salama, A., 2006, A typological Prespective: The Impact of

Cultural Paradigmatic Shifts on The Evolution of Courtyard

Houses in Cairo, METU JAFA (23:1) pp 41-58.

Myneni, K.K., 2013, Courtyard as a Building Component; its

role and application in developing a traditional built form,

creating comfort; a case of Athangudi Village, India, International

Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological

Sciences Vol 1, Issue 4 pp. 633-639.

Ali,Z.F., 2007, Comfort with Courtyards in Dhaka Apartments,

BRAC University Journal Vol. IV, No. 2, pp 1-6

Heidari, S., 2010, A deep courtyard as the best building form

for desert climate, an introduction to effects of air movement

(Case study: Yazd), Desert 15 pp 19-26.

Hassan, M.H., nd, Ventilated courtyard as a passive cooling

strategy in the hot desert climate.

Rizk, A.A. and Henze, G.P., 2014, Survey of airflow around

multiple buildings, American Journal of Energy Engineering.

Shi, Y., 2013, Wind Environment Characteristics in Chinese

Vernacular Courtyard and Its Design Application, Cutting

Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural

Association, pp 493-502.

Tablada,A., Bloken, B., Caemelier, J., De Troyer, F. and

Versachure, H., 2005, The influence of courtyard geometry

on air flow and thermal comfort: CFD and thermal comfort

simulations, The 22nd Conference on Passive and Low Energy


Tablada, A., Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J., De Troyer, F. and

Verschure, H., nd, Geometry of Building’s Courtyard to

Favour Natural Ventilation: Comparison between Wind

Tunnel Experiment and Numerical Simulation

Xie, M., GZhang, G. and Xu, F., 2006, Ecological Technologies

of a Chinese Traditional Folk House in Hot Summer

and Cold Winter Zone, ICEBO 2006, Chine.

Yang, X., Li, Y. and Yang, L., 2012, Predicting and understanding

temporal 3D exterior surface temperature distribution

in ideal courtyard, Building and Environment 57 pp.


Almhafdy, A., Ibrahim, N., Ahmad, S. Sh. andYahya, J.,

, Courtyard Design Variants and Microclimate Performance,

Procedia Social and Behavioral Science 101, pp


Yasa, E. and Ik, V., 2014, Evaluation of the effects of

courtyard buildings shapes on solar heat gains and energy

efficiency according to different climatic regions, Energy and

Buildings 73 pp. 192-199.

Zamani, Z., Taleghani, M. and Hoseini, S.B., 2012, Courtyards

as solution in green architecture to reduce environmental

pollution, Energy Education Science and Technology

Part A: Energy Science and Research Vol (issue) 30 (1), pp.


Indrika Rajapaksha, Hisaya Nagai, Masaya Okumiya, 2002,

Indoor Thermal Modification of a Ventilated Courtyard

House in Tropics, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building

Engineering 94

Tablada, A., De Troyer, F., Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J. and

Verschure, H., 2009, On natural ventilation and thermal

comfort in compact urban environment – the Old Havana case,

Building and Environment 44(9), pp. 1943-1958.

Frick, H., 2008, Ilmu Fisika Bangunan, Yogyakarta - Indonesia: